Sunday, May 24, 2020
The MGI Team Case Study is a lesson in the difficulties faced by a team with inadequate leadership. Indications of possible problems in the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning were evident even before the MGI teamÃ¢â¬â¢s first meeting. At that time, the group consisted of the three founders of MGI and two Harvard Business School (HBS) second year students. The heterogeneous nature of the group was an area of possible conflict. Three or perhaps four different cultures were represented on the team. Two of the founders were from the Ukraine and remained very close to the culture. The third founder was from St. Petersburg, Russia and was considered by the other two members to be more Americanized. Dana, the first student selected to join the team, was theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The students were initially unclear about their roles in the team, but eventually emerged as the strategic direction setters. The team naturally progressed into two different sub-groups. One consisted on the three founders of the company (the Russians) and the second comprised the two HBS students. The founder/Russian team wanted the company to pursue the entertainment market, and their focus was long-term direction of the company rather than the immediate need to produce materials for the HBS business plan contest. This sub-groupÃ¢â¬â¢s norms were high commitment to the team, creativity, an informal and disorganized approach to the work and high conflict among group members, this latter characteristic likely a product of their Russian culture. The student team was extremely goal oriented and eventually focused on taking the company in an initial direction to market the product toward the educational market. Their objective was meeting the immediate requirements of the HBS business plan contest. The norms of this team were high cooperation between Henry and Dana, high levels of preparation for the meetings and a more structured approach to the problems at hand. Henry and Da na demonstrated their cohesiveness in the fashion that they strategized together and played good cop/bad cop to deal with SashaÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive obstinacy toward ideas brought forward by Dana.Show MoreRelatedHenry Tam The MGI Team4226 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesExecutive SummaryMGI team were left with three weeks to come up with a business plan before the time line for the Harvard Business School (HBS) Business Plan Contest. The seven members in the team comprised of the three founders - Igor Tkachenko, Alexandra (Sasha) Gimpelson and Roman Yukab, Henry Tam Jr. and Dana Soiman of HBS MBA class students, Dav Clark from MIT and Alex Jan Sartakov from Boston Berklee College. The team had little success thus far working together having experienced conflictsRead MoreHenry Tam and the Mgi Team Case2037 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHenry Tam and the MGI Team Case Characteristics of group formation and team processes are highlighted in the Harvard Business School case of Henry Tam and the Music Games International (MGI) Team. The MGI founders sought to improve the commercialization of their music game by launching a team to market their product and develop a business plan. The team was formed with positive intentions by the MGI founders; however, the lack of a common goal, defined roles, and a decision-making process hinderedRead MoreHenry Tam and Mgi Team Process996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHENRY TAM AND THE MGI TEAM CASE STUDY Introduction The Music Games International (Hereafter referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"MGIÃ¢â¬ ) team comprised of seven (7) members as stated - The group is extremely diverse comprising of the following, Henry Tam and Dana Soiman were final semester students at Harvard Business School (Hereafter referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"HBSÃ¢â¬ ) working on the business plan not just for the competition, and as a professional challenge as soon. For the founders, Sasha Gimpelson was known for his unconventionalRead MoreHenry Tam and Mgi Team Case Study Analysis.900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBACKGROUND Henry Tam and the MGI Team have three weeks to submit their business plan to HBS and are struggling to define roles, make decisions and resolve conflict. MGIÃ¢â¬â¢s team has diverse talents: Igor and Roman are accomplished musicians. Sasha has a keen business and finance acumen, Alex has substantial experience in music and business, Dav is software developer and an MBA student at MIT, Dana is a finance and banking major and currently a HBS MBA grad while Henry is an investment banker, hasRead MoreHenry Tam and the MGI Team Case - Main Managerial Problem Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHenry Tam and the MGI Team Case - Main Managerial Problem On the surface, the seven-member MGI team which comprised of Henry Tam and Dana Soiman Ã¢â¬â both current HBS MBA Students, Alex Sartakov Ã¢â¬â a Berklee College of Music student, Dav Clar Ã¢â¬â a MIT graduate student, and Alexander (Sasha) Gimpelson, Igor Tkachenko, and Roman Yakub Ã¢â¬â the MGI founders, seems like an ideal team, with each member bringingRead MoreHenry Tam Case1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStatement We have to evaluate the performance of a distinctly diverse team aiming to create a business plan for MGIÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Music PuzzleÃ¢â¬ Game to enter the HBS contest. The team comprised of MGI founders, Sasha, Igor and Roman, two HBS students Henry and Dana and subject matter experts Alex and Dav. In addition, we have to recommend actions for Henry Tam, which would foster better team dynamics to accomplish the task at hand. The team, after much deliberation and little success, has just 3 weeks beforeRead MoreDeveloping A Cohesive And Successful Team Essay1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The ability to have a cohesive and successful team relies on many standards, including the design of the team and how processes are facilitated (class, session 7). These components can produce an effective team of individuals with Ã¢â¬Å"complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountableÃ¢â¬ (Katzenbach Smith, page 3). When creating a team with this foundation, management should apply the appropriate interdependenceRead MoreBusiness Plan For Harvard Business School Essay2408 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHenry Tam enthusiastically joined the MGI team, he thought of himself to be a valuable asset. After attending the first few meetings, Henry realized how unorganized and dysfunctional the team was. Some of the issues at MGI were lack of cohesiveness, leadership, communication, and an ethnic superiority complex. The team is not working well with each other and struggling with personality co nflictsÃ¢â¬â¢. I will provide an in-depth analysis and recommend actions the MGI team can take to remedy some of theRead MoreHenry Tam And The Mgi Case Analysis2025 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesGuo, Ph.D Ã¢â¬Å"Henry Tam and the MGI TeamÃ¢â¬ Case Analysis Florian Popp Ã¢â¬Å"Henry Tam and the MGI TeamÃ¢â¬ Case Analysis Introduction Do you have what it takes to enter the annual Harvard Business School Business Plan Contest? Vison, ideas and concepts are great in theory but are ineffective unless you execute them. This case study shows the struggles of the reality three young entrepreneurs faced when they were trying to build a product. It shows the difficulties in forming a team and most importantlyRead MoreMusic Games International Case Study1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesInternational (MGI). With three weeks left until the deadline the team project was not close to complete. The team was comprised of the three founders, Igor Tkachenko, Alexandra (Sasha) Gimpelson and Roman Yukab; there was Henry Tam Jr. and Dana Soiman both HBS MBA students, additionally there was Alex Jan Sartakov from Boston Berklee College and Dav Clark from MIT. The team had experienced conflicts and tensions throughout the entire process. The main issues identified for the team s process problems
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Soft Spots: A MarineÃ¢â¬â¢s Memoir of Combat and Post-traumatic stress disorder It all began in 2003 when President Bush declared war on Iraq. He declared that, Ã¢â¬Å"Now that conflict has come, the only way to limit its duration is to apply decisive forceÃ¢â¬ (Bush). Unfortunately, the war in Iraq became one of the longest and most controversial wars fought by America. Thanks to the sacrifices of the men and women in uniform, the mission ended in 2011. However, this war still lives in the hearts of those that fought for the lives of others. In Soft Spots: A MarineÃ¢â¬â¢s Memoir of Combat and Post-traumatic stress disorder, Author, Sargent Clint Van Winkle is one of those men that fought and is still fighting his own mental battle of the pass war. Despite all the uncertainties of whether the war was worth fighting for or not, Sargent Van Winkle favored the War against Terror, because he enjoyed the life of combat, being a Marine and the brotherhood that came along with survival. Merely, at the age of 18 Clint Van Winkle enlisted in the military. From tha t day when Winkle earned the right to call himself a Marine, he took place in an extremely proud heritage, one that will remain a part of him forever. By the age of 25 he increase his ranking to a sergeant that commanded a section of amphibious assault vehicles; one of initial invasion forces that invaded Iraq. He was trained to follow orders, forced to survive, and made a pact to protect the guy to the right and to the left of him.Show MoreRelatedPtsd4841 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesProtocol At Oceanside Trauma, we take pride in our modified Trauma and Drug Use Intake Form (TDUIF) which will be administered to all of our potential clients (Beall, Larry, 2001). We have found that comorbid issues are highly correlated with most Stress issues, especially our military veterans and believe itÃ¢â¬â¢s in our clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ best interests if we administer an intake protocol that addresses this before we proceed any further. It should be noted that if the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s answers reflect potential comorbid
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(278) " in direct foreign investing, as what is necessary is that it must come in the foreign market in order to to the full allow the net incomes, for illustration, a house could licence its merchandise to a house in the foreign state, so that it need non straight put in the market\." This study has discussed different theoretical model of FDI that takes topographic point. These theories briefly explicate why houses go to problem when set uping or geting abroad. Theories that use on this study are Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës parts, merchandise life-cycle theory, caves theory, internalization theory, the eclectic paradigm, strategic motives of foreign direct investing and investing way development ( IDP ) theory. We will write a custom essay sample on Hymer International Operations Of National Firms Economics Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now This study besides evaluates Honda automotive as an illustration on how they survive and compete in the competitory international markets nowadays with utilizing FDI theoretical accounts, statistics and theories. Based on these analyses, I feel that FDI takes an of import function to both foreign and host states and besides impact steadfast behavior or effects on host economic systems. Introduction This study will discourse Foreign Direct Investment theories and measure the FDI of a taking participant industry that chosen, Toyota, Japan. Foreign direct investing ( FDI ) is the name given to treat where a house from a state provides capital to an bing or newly-created house in another state ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . For illustration, a foreign house may make up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to set-up production in the UK and by so making will prosecuting in the procedure known as FDI. Firms turn uping production in more than one state are frequently referred to as transnational endeavors ( MNEs ) . Tormenting ( 1981 ) notes there are two chief jobs with sing FDI. First, FDI is more than merely the transportation of capital, since merely as significantly it involves the transportation of engineering, direction and organisational accomplishments. Second, the resources are transferred within the house instead than between two independent parties in the market topographic point, as is the instance with capital ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . These factors give FDI own a alone cardinal theories and frequently cited as Hymer ( 1960 ) international operations of national houses ; Vernon Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1966 ) merchandise life-cycle theory ; Cave Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1971 ) horizontal and perpendicular theories ; Buckley and Casson ( 1976 ) Internalization theory ; Dunning ( 1977 ) eclectic theory ; Graham ( 1978 ) strategic behaviour of houses and John Dunning ( 1981 ) investing development way ( IDP ) theory. This study will get down by analyzing the Hymer ( 1960 ) theory. ( Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, FDI, theory, Japan FDI, Honda ) Literature Review 1.1 Hymer ( 1960 ) international operations of national houses Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1960 ) , who saw defects in the prevailing position that direct investings and portfolio were synonymous with one another. Hymer noted that direct investing was chiefly performed by houses in fabrication, whereas there was a predomination of fiscal administrations involved in portfolio investing ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . Hymer was besides explained why direct investings across assorted states ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . Hymer ( 1960 ) expressed his dissatisfaction with the theory of indirect ( or portfolio ) capital transportations to explicate the foreign value-added activities of houses ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . In peculiar, he identified three grounds for his discontent. The first was that one time uncertainness and hazard, the cost of geting information and volatile exchange rates and doing minutess were incorporated into classical portfolio theory, many anticipations, for illustration, with regard to the cross-border motions of money capital in response to involvement rate alterations, became nullified. This was because such market imperfectnesss modified the behavioral parametric quantities impacting public presentation of houses and the behavior and, in peculiar, scheme in serving foreign markets ( Tormenting, 2008 # 3 ) . Second, Hymer stated that FDI involved the transportation of a bundle of resource ( i.e engineering, entrepreneurship, direction accomplishments, and so on ) , and non merely finance capital which portfolio theories such as Iversen ( 1935 ) had sought to explicate. The 3rd and possibly most cardinal feature of FDI was that it involved no alteration in the ownership of resources or rights transferred, whereas indirect investing, which was transacted through the market, did ask such a alteration. In effects, the organizational mode of both the dealing of the resources, for illustration, intermediate merchandises, and the value-added activities linked by these minutess was different. Furthermore, Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës theory of FDI draws it s influence from Bain Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1956 ) barriers to entry theoretical account of industrial economic sciences ( Teece, 1985 ) . Hymer Begins by observing that there are barriers to entry for a house desiring to set-up production abroad. These are in the signifier of uncertainness, hazard, and host-country patriotism ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . Uncertainty gives rise to costs in get the better ofing informational disadvantages associated with strangeness with local imposts. Each state has its ain linguistic communications, legal system, economic system and authorities, which place houses from exterior of the state at a disadvantage compared to houses that are of course resident to the state. The 2nd barrier is chauvinistic favoritism by host states, which may happen by the authorities with a protectionist docket, or by consumers of the host state who prefer to buy goods from ain national houses for grounds of loyal or trueness inclinations. The concluding barrier manifests itself as an exc hange rate hazard ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . As the house has to pay a dividend to its stockholders in the place state it has to repatriate the net incomes back to its ain currency. Given these barriers to international productions, why do houses prosecute in foreign direct investing? Harmonizing to Hymer there are two grounds, whether of which could use, and both of which are expected to increase its net incomes ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . First, the house removes competition from within the industry, by taking-over or by unifying with houses in other states. Second, the house has advantages over other houses runing in a foreign state. Examples of the latter are the ability of the house to get factors of production at a lower cost, the usage of better distributional installations, the ownership of cognition non known to its challengers or a differentiated merchandise that is now known in the other state. Both grounds stress the importance of Ã¢â¬Ëmarket imperfectnesss Ã¢â¬Ë ( Dunning and Rugman, 1985 ) , and underlying these the investor has direct control of the investing. Overall, these grounds are non sufficient for a house to prosecute in direct foreign investing, as what is necessary is that it must come in the foreign market in order to to the full allow the net incomes, for illustration, a house could licence its merchandise to a house in the foreign state, so that it need non straight put in the market. You read "Hymer International Operations Of National Firms Economics Essay" in category "Essay examples" However, there are jobs with licencing the merchandise. These include the failure to make an understanding with the licensing house over the degrees of end product or monetary values, or the costs involved in the monitoring an understanding made between the houses. 1.2 Product Life-Cycle Theory Vernon ( 1966 ) , argued that Ã¢â¬Å" the determination to turn up production is non made by standard factor-cost or labour-cost analysis, but by a more complicated procedure Ã¢â¬ ( Kogut, 1998 # 2, p.29 ) . The merchandise rhythm theoretical account was introduced in the 1960s to explicate market-seeking production by houses of a peculiar ownership or nationality ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . On the other manus, the merchandise rhythm was the first dynamic reading of the determiners of, and relationship between, international trade and foreign production ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . It besides introduced some fresh hypotheses sing demand stimulations, engineering leads and slowdowns, and information and communicating costs, which have later proved utile tools in the survey of foreign production and exchange ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Harmonizing to Vernon, a merchandise has a life rhythm that has three chief phases. These phases are of import as they have deductions for the international locat ion of a merchandise as follows. Phase One: Merchandise development procedure. In other words, the nature of the merchandise that the house is doing is non standardised ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . Phase Two: Maturing merchandise. This means that the demand for the merchandise to be situated near to its market diminutions, which allows for economic systems of graduated table. These impact on the locational determination of the house, particularly as the demand for the merchandise is likely to turn in other states, and the house will hold to make up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind whether it is deserving puting up production abroad. Furthermore, this could even intend that the place state experiences exports back to it from the foreign works. Phase Three: Standardized merchandise. This is an extension to the maturating merchandise phase, where the standardization of the merchandise has reached its Ã¢â¬Ëzenith Ã¢â¬Ë , and a concluding model of the merchandise has been found ( Kogut, 1998 # 2 ) . 1.3 Caves Theory Caves ( 1971 ) , expanded upon Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës theory of direct investing, and placed it steadfastly in the context of industrial administration theory ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . The importance of Caves work is that this theory will associate Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës theory of international production to the so current theories of industrial administration on horizontal and perpendicular integrating. Caves identify between houses that engage in horizontal FDI and those that undertake perpendicular FDI ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Horizontal FDI takes topographic point when a house enters into its ain merchandise market within a foreign state, whereas perpendicular FDI happens when a house enters into the merchandise market at a different phase of production ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . 1.4 Internalisation Theory Coase ( 1937 ) , examines the function that dealing costs play in the formation of administrations known as internalization theory ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . In brief, Coase was concerned with why houses exist and why non all minutess in a n economic system occur in the market. Coase besides answered this in footings of the minutess costs involved in utilizing the market, where this is the cost of seeking and finding the market monetary value, or, one time the monetary value is found, the cost of dialogue, subscribing and enforcement of contracts between the parties involved in the dealing. The procedure of internalization is developed to explicate international production and FDI, and one of the taking advocates is Buckley and Casson ( 1976 ) . They present the MNE as basically an extension of the multi-plant house ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Bucley and Casson note that the operations of house, particularly big houses, take the signifier non merely of bring forthing services and goods, but a ctivities such as selling, preparation, development and research, direction techniques and engagement with fiscal markets. These activities are mutualist and are connected by Ã¢â¬Ëintermediate merchandises Ã¢â¬Ë , taking the signifier of either cognition or stuff merchandises, and expertness. A cardinal intermediate merchandise in the internalization theory of FDI is knowledge. One ground is that cognition takes a considerable period of clip to bring forth, for illustration through development and research, but is extremely hazardous, so that hereafters markets do non be. Sellers of markets may be unwilling to unwrap information, which has unsure value to the purchaser, doing market fail. Further, Sellerss and purchasers of cognition can frequently keep a grade of market power, which leads to a Ã¢â¬Ëbilateral concentration of power Ã¢â¬Ë ( Williamson, 1979 ) , and unsure results ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . These jobs indicate the terrible troubles in licensing and undertaking wh ere information is important. In respects to internationalization, the public good belongings of cognition agencies it is easy transmitted within the house, irrespective of whether it is inside or across national boundaries. This creates internal markets across national boundaries, and as Buckley and Casson province, as houses search for and work cognition to their maximal potency they do so in legion locations, with this taking topographic point on an international graduated table, taking to a Ã¢â¬Å" web of workss on a global footing Ã¢â¬ ( Jones, 2006 # 1, p.45 ) . The internalization theories of FDI played an of import function in progressing and developing the theory of FDI in the 1970s and have remained popular since that clip ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . 1.5 The Eclectic Paradigm ( Please refer to postpone 2.1 and 2.2 in reading this subdivision ) Reflecting upon the history of the theory of FDI, Dunning ( 1977 ) noted that it was really much couched in footings of either the structural market failure hypothesis of Hymer and Caves or the internalization attack of Buckley and Casson ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Tormenting provided an eclectic response to these by conveying the viing theories together to organize a individual theory, or paradigm as it is more frequently referred. The basic premiss of Dunning Ã¢â¬Ës paradigm is that it links together Hymer Ã¢â¬Ës ownership advantages with the internalization school, and at the same clip adds a locational dimension to the theory, which at the clip had non been to the full explored ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . Further, Dunning does pull off to present some new considerations, such as the impact that different state and industry features have on each of the ownership, locational and internalization advantages of FD ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . The eclectic paradigm of FDI provinces that a house will straight put in a foreign state merely if it fulfils three conditions. First, the house must possess an ownership-specific plus, which gives it an advantage over other houses and which are sole to the house. Second, it must internalize these assets within the house instead than through catching or licensing. Third, there must be an advantage in setting-up production in a peculiar foreign state instead than trusting on exports ( Blomstrom, 2000 # 8 ) . Different types of ownership ( O ) , locational ( L ) and internalization ( I ) factors are given in Table 1 ( jointly known as OLI ) ( Jones, 2006 # 1 ) . Internalization advantages are the ways that a house maximises the additions from their ownership advantages to avoid or get the better of market imperfectnesss ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Internalisation-specific advantages consequences in the procedure of production going internal to the house. Reasons for internalization include the turning away of dealing costs, the protection of the good, market and finance, turning away of duties and the ability to capture economic systems of graduated table from production ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Furthermore, non all of the OLI conditions for FDI will be equally dispersed across states, and hence each status will be determined by the factors that are specific to single states ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Linkss between the OLI advantages and the country-specific features are summarised in Table 2. For illustration, the ownership-specific advantage of house size is likely to be influenced by market size in the house Ã¢â¬Ës place state ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . This is because the larger the market is, the more likely will a house be able to derive ownership-specific advantages in the signifier of economic systems of graduated table. In footings of location-specific factors, labor costs will change across developed and developing states, while conveyance costs are determined by the distance between the host and place states. Finally, country-specific factors are likely to impact the grade to which houses internalise their advantages. 1.6 Strategic Motivations of Foreign Direct Investment Despite the progresss made by the eclectic attack to FDI, the theory has been criticised for disregarding another facet of FDI theory. Knickerbocker ( 1973 ) , and so advanced by Graham ( 1978, 1998 ) . The distinguished characteristic of the strategic attack to FDI is that is believes that an initial influx of FDI into a state will bring forth a reaction signifier the local manufacturers in that state, so that FDI is a dynamic procedure. The procedure from the domestic manufacturers can either be aggressive or defensive in nature. An aggressive response would be a monetary value war or entry into the foreign house Ã¢â¬Ës place market while a defensive response would be an acquisition or amalgamation of other domestic manufacturers to reenforce market power ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . 1.7 Investment Development Path Theory John Dunning Ã¢â¬Ës Ã¢â¬Ëinvestment development way ( IDP ) Ã¢â¬Ë theory ( 1981 ) and its latest version ( Tormenting an Narula 1994 ) are implicitly built on the impression that the planetary economic system is needfully hierarchal in footings of the assorted phases of economic development in which its diverse component states are situated. The IDP basically traces out the net cross-border flows of industrial cognition, the flows that are internalised in foreign direct investing ( FDI ) and that restructure and upgrade the planetary economic system, although there is besides the non-equity type of cognition transportation such as licensing, turn-key operations, and the similar. In this manner, the IDP can therefore be position as a cross-border larning curve exhibited by a state that successfully move up the phases of development by geting industrial cognition from its more advanced Ã¢â¬Ëneighbours Ã¢â¬Ë . A move from the Ã¢â¬ËU-shaped Ã¢â¬Ë ( i.e negative NOI ) part t o the Ã¢â¬Ëwiggle Ã¢â¬Ë subdivision of the IDP indicates an Ã¢â¬Ëequilibration in cognition airing Ã¢â¬Ë ( Dunning, 1996 # 5, p.143 ) and that is, a narrowing of the industrial engineering spread between the advanced and the catching-up states. Therefore, IDP curve conceptualised by Dunning is an idealized form based on free-market exchanged of cognition among states ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Japan Automotive Industry 2.1 Components-intensive assembly-based fabrication and FDI ( first, trade-conflict-skirting, but subsequently rationalizing type ) Cars and auto-parts had long been targeted by the Nipponese authorities as one of the most promising industries in which both higher technological advancement and productiveness were possible and whose merchandises were extremely income elastic. In add-on to cars, another components-intensive, assembly-based industry that successfully emerged in Japan in the 1970s was consumer electronics ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Both cars and consumer electronics came to capitalize really adroitly on Japan Ã¢â¬Ës double industrial construction in which legion little and moderate-sized endeavor coexisted alongside a limited figure of large-scale houses ; the former specialised at the comparatively labor-intensive terminal, while the latter operated at the comparatively capital-intensive, scale-based terminal of vertically incorporate fabrication ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Furthermore, it was besides in Japan Ã¢â¬Ës car industry ( at Toyota Motor Co. , to be exact ) that a new fabrication paradigm, Ã¢â¬Ëlean Ã¢â¬Ë or Ã¢â¬Ëflexible Ã¢â¬Ë production, originated as a superior option to Ã¢â¬ËFordist Ã¢â¬Ë mass production ( Womack, Jones and Roos, 1990 ) . This technological advancement came to be reflected in lifting engineering exports in the conveyance equipment ( largely, car ) industry. But the really success of constructing up the efficient, large-scale ( hence exploitative of scale/scope economic systems ) hierarchies of assembly operations in extremely differentiated cars and electronics goods, along with increased R A ; D and technological accretion ( which is reflected in increasing engineering exports ) , resulted in Japan Ã¢â¬Ës export thrust and spread outing trade excess. These state of affairss in bend rapidly led to merchandise issues and the crisp grasp of the hankering ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . To besiege protectionism, Nipponese manufacturers of cars and electronics goods began to replace their exports with local assembly operations in the Western markets, chiefly in North America and Europe. Meanwhile, they besides started to bring forth reasonably standardised ( Internet Explorer. Relatively low value added ) parts and constituents, or those that can be cost-effectively produced, locally, both in low-wage developing states, particularly in Asia, and in high-wage Western countries- in the latter, with the installing of labour-cost-reducing and labour-quality-augmenting mechanization equipment largely shipped from Japan. Therefore, a web of Nipponese abroad ventures began to Ã¢â¬Ëstraddle Ã¢â¬Ë the advanced host states and the developing host states at the same clip ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Recently, these assembly-based FDIs are traveling beyond the trade-conflict-skirting stage to make a new stage of rationalised cross-border production and selling. More and more constituents are produced at supplied place to the abroad fabrication outstations. Besides, low-end merchandises ( theoretical accounts ) are assigned to production and selling in the developing host states, particularly in Asia ; some are imported back into Japan. Therefore, we can spot a more refined or more aggressively delineated and specialised signifier of trade within an industry ( i.e intra industry ) or more suitably within a house ( i.e intra- house trade ) and within a production procedure ( i.e inter-process trade ) , a new signifier of trade made possible by rationalisation-seeking type of FDI ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . 2.2 Toyota ( Please refer to appendix 1 A ; 2 in reading this subdivision ) The Nipponese market is the most amalgamate of all three markets. Toyota, is a multinational Nipponese international auto maker where headquartered in Aichi, Japan ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . Harmonizing to appendix 1, in 2011, Toyota was the 5th biggest multinational companies with foreign sale as 60.8 per centum of entire. Besides, it has 38 % of its 326,000 workers abroad ( Economist, 2012 # 7 ) . In 2009, Toyota entirely has 36.88 per centum of the rider auto market, 18.29 per centum of the truck market and 79.72 per centum of the coach market ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Excluding Japan, Toyota is the market leader in two of the six largest states in Asia Pacific which are Malaysia and Thailand ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Furthermore, in 2009, two regional markets accounted for 78 per centum of Toyota Ã¢â¬Ës gross Asia ( with Japan at 48.3 per centum of grosss ) and North America ( at 29.70 per centum of grosss ) ; Europe was merely at 14.1 per centum of grosss and remainder of the unive rse 7.9 per centum, and therefore, it is a bi-region-focused company. Harmonizing to appendix 2, In term of units sold, the geographic distribution is similar where Asia and Oceania history for 14 per centum, North America 32 per centum and Europe 14 per centum. Therefore, in footings of gross and units sold, Toyota is a bi-regional company ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Over 10 old ages, Toyota Ã¢â¬Ës intra-regional per centum of gross revenues has decreased from 57.1 per centum to 46.2 per centum. One major ground for this is the Nipponese market itself, where gross revenues decreased for 48.4 per centum of entire grosss in 1993 to 38.3 per centum in 2002. As comparing, North American, European, and non-triad gross revenues have steadily increased in importance. Toyota manufactures locally over two tierces of the auto sells in United States. Local reactivity is of import for Toyota. Toyota introduced its luxury theoretical accounts to suit the wealthier and aging North American babe boomers in the 1990s. Today, the company is presenting autos to aim the immature American client, the demographic reverberation of the babe boomers. Since 60 per centum of US auto purchasers remain loyal to the trade name of first auto, it is therefore imperative to serve this immature market ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Furthermore, American consumers, have been antiphonal to the company Ã¢â¬Ës repute for lower monetary value and quality at which Toyota Ã¢â¬Ës autos are sold ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . Besides, the resale value is besides higher for Toyota autos. One major advantage for Toyota is that is has some of the best fabrication installations in the universe, and it combined this with first-class relationships with its providers. Until late, Toyota was one of the most efficient companies at outsourcing production to providers with whom it enjoys amicable long-run, sometimes keiretsu-style, relationship ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . If the car industry is to go more like the electronics industry, vehicle trade name proprietor ( VBOs ) , such as GM, and VW, will be the equivalent of original equipment makers ( OEMs ) in the electronics industry, such as Nokia, and will concentrate on designing, technology, and selling vehicles to be sold under their trade name while others take attention of fabrica tion ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Toyota is likely farther along this outsourcing path than other triad car shapers. Overall, although Toyota has much intra-regional trade and FDI, this does non intend that trade or FDI between them has declined ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . As discussed, all of them have invested big sums of money in each other. For illustration, in 2008, the EU state has $ 1,622.911 billion of FDI in the United States and $ 86.915 billion in Japan. The United States imports $ 377 billion from the EU and $ 143.4 billion from Japan. So they are closely linked in footings of both trade and FDI ( M.Rugman, 2012 # 6 ) . 3. Decisions Overall, this study has reviewed the theoretical literature on foreign direct investing and Honda automotive in the FDI international markets. Since Hymer, there have been efforts to turn to a figure of issues, such as why FDI occurs and where it locates. This study has besides take on board developments in Dunning Ã¢â¬Ës eclectic paradigm of FDI, which non merely encompasses ownership and internalization advantages of transnational endeavor, but the function that location dramas in a house Ã¢â¬Ës determination to put abroad. Since the clip of the eclectic paradigm, other theories have emerged that have stressed the importance of the function of scheme in FDI in the face of Ã¢â¬Ëglobalisation Ã¢â¬Ë and a corresponding growing in competition between houses. In this, the function of the traditional barriers to entry across states, such as the differences in the legal, economic environments and lingual, have become less of import, and FDI is now be viewed as competition between a few houses on an international phase ( Dunning, 1996 # 5 ) . Tormenting Ã¢â¬Ës IDP paradigm provides a challenging model to analyze the Nipponese industry experience, because the instance of Japan seems so Ã¢â¬Ëdeviant Ã¢â¬Ë from the Ã¢â¬Ënorm Ã¢â¬Ë set Forth in the macro-IDP form. The Asiatic NIEs and the new NIEs ( ASEAN-4 ) and now Ã¢â¬Ënew Ã¢â¬Ë new NIEs ( China, Vietnam and India ) have moulded their developmental schemes along the line of MNE- facilitated development in order to Ã¢â¬Ëswing up Ã¢â¬Ë . Indeed, Japan automotive seems to hold been a function theoretical account for other East and South East Asiatic states to fit in their thrust to economic modernization. In add-on, to the high degree of international concern conducted across the three, companies in the three are invariably looking for new thoughts from other parts that will do them more competitory. In the United States, for illustration, the caput of the Federal Reserve System has expressed the belief that US antimonopoly patterns are out of day of the month and that rivals should be allowed to get and unify with each other in order to protect themselves from universe competition ( Dunning, 2008 # 3 ) . This thought has long been popular in Japan where Keiretsus, or concern groups, which consist of a host of companies that are linked together through ownership and/or joint ventures, dominate the local environment and are able to utilize their combined connexions and wealth to rule universe markets. ( 2000 words ) Table 1 The Three Conditions of the Eclectic Theory Ownership-specific advantages ( internal to endeavors of one nationality ) Size of house Technology and trade Markss Management and organizational systems Entree to save capacity Economies of joint supply Greater entree to markets and cognition International chances such as diversifying hazard Location-specific advantage ( finding the location of production ) Distribution of inputs and markets Cost of labor, conveyance and stuffs costs between states Government intercession and policies Commercial and legal substructure Language, civilization and imposts ( ie psychic distance ) Internalisation-specific advantages ( get the better ofing market imperfectnesss ) Decrease in hunt, dialogue and monitoring costs Avoidance of belongings right enforcement costs Engage in monetary value favoritism Protection of merchandise Avoidance of duties Beginning: Dunning ( 1981 ) Table 2 Features of Countries and OLI-specific Advantages Owbnership-specific advantages State features Size of house Large markets Broad attitudes to amalgamations Technology and trade Markss Government support of invention Skilled work force Management and organizational systems Supply of trained directors. Educational installations Merchandise distinction High income states Degrees of advertisement and selling Location-specific advantages State features Costss of labor and stuffs Developed or developing state Conveyance costs between states Distance between states Government intercession and policies Attitudes of authorities to FDI Economies of graduated table Size of markets Psychic distance Similarities of states Ã¢â¬Ë linguistic communications and civilizations. Internalisation-specific advantages State features Searching negociating monitoring costs. Greater degrees of instruction and larger markets make cognition type ownership-specific advantages more likely to happen. Avoid costs of implementing belongings rights. Protection of merchandises. Beginning: Dunning ( 1981 ) Appendix 1 Degree centigrades: UsersuserDesktop20120714_woc582_5.png How to cite Hymer International Operations Of National Firms Economics Essay, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Compares novels critical views on Amer. society (destruction of traditional values, racism), characters and narrative techniques. This study will provide a comparative analysis of William Faulkners The Sound and the Fury and Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man. The study will focus on the statements the books make about modern American life and on how the stories in the book are told (the books as forms of expression). The two books are clearly critical of American society in general, Faulkner for the economic and social forces which were tearing apart the traditional family and community in the South, and Ellison for the racism of the country. In terms of form and style of storytelling, Faulkner offers a more complex set of techniques and strategies than does Ellison, whose first-person narrative in comparison is straightforward but certainly not simple. Faulkner does not simply see the old South as a wonderful realm of manners and morality, and the new America as a. We will write a custom essay sample on The Sound The Fury( William Faulkner ) Invisible Man ( Ralph Ellison ) or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page .
Thursday, March 26, 2020
Are These Not Also Men? Are These Not Also Men? In 1511, Fray Antonio Montesinos spoke the words, Are these not also men? His famous quote was a response to the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples that inhabited the Americas, by the conquering Spanish. Immediately upon discovering and colonizing the New World a widespread debate arose in regards to the usage and treatment of the native Indians. This debate was primarily focused on how to classify the Indians. Many people believed that the Indians were not human at all and should be allowed to be treated merely as slaves. The opposing side, the church, argued back that the Indians, no matter how seemingly uncivilized they lived, were humans. A major argument resulted and the question as to how a human being is classified as being a human became a fiery debate among many. The Spanish conquerors believed that, like animals, the Indians did not have rational souls, or the ability to reason. Also, in conjunction, the Conquerors used the views of a medieval Dominican named Thomas Aquinas as justification for their reasoning. Aquinas once stated that a rational soul was determined by the ability to become a Christian. Those not capable were considered to be brute animals. The Indians were often compared to parrots, or horses in the way they lived their lives. The conquerors needed the indigenous people to be considered less than human because if they were considered animals, forms of forced labor with out time off for religious learning could be used. An example was the encomienda. The Churchs point of view was that in order to have and maintain power in the New World they would need the numbers of the Indians to be included in their community as followers. Patricia Seed, the author of this journal offers her line of thinking. It is that both sides of the debate were trying to monopolize the Indians for their own benefits. The Spaniards, to become more prosperous themselves and the Church, to strengthen there own political base in the New World. She argues that neither side was fully justified and underhanded motives had much to do with each sides actions. (Seed, 640) The church, in an attempt to end the debate, sought the opinion of the pope himself and in 1537 Pope Paul III issued an official statement regarding the Indians. We....consider, however, that the Indians are truly men and that they are...capable of understanding the catholic faith. The Spanish Crown, agreed with the Popes statement. Queen Isabella used this to Spains advantage when she declared that all the indigenous peoples conquered in Spanish territory were subjects to Spain. Seed suggests that this formed the keystone to Spains political control of the natives.(Seed 645) This new system had two main goals. The first was to further spread Christianity by converting the Indians and teaching the ways of Christianity. The second was vassalage, forced duty of obedience to the Spanish State. In all the debates and controversy to whether or not the Indians were humans who were capable of grasping the fundamentals of Christianity, a major point was overlooked. This was the idea that maybe the Indians were in fact capable of becoming Christians, but really didnt have any desire to. Automatically, if an Indian didnt show signs of grasping the ideas of our religion, they were thought of as stupid and in many cases not even human. No one ever really stopped to think of the possibility that they were content with their own beliefs and didnt want to have a strange and foreign idea forced upon them. In response to this journal, I agree with Seeds argument, in that, although both sides had their opinions, neither side was justified in their arguments. This is true because both sides were only looking at the situation form their own point of view, and never considered the thoughts of the Indians. Still today, there is much controversy as to the rights of the few indigenous cultures that still exist today. The social and political problems that existed hundreds of years ago still exist today and never will be truly fixed until we, as an entire society, decide to let others live as they
Friday, March 6, 2020
An Investigation Of How Mood Affects Theory-Of-Mind Use In Pre-School Children The WritePass Journal
An Investigation Of How Mood Affects Theory-Of-Mind Use In Pre-School Children Background An Investigation Of How Mood Affects Theory-Of-Mind Use In Pre-School Children BackgroundProposed ResearchProcedure. Mood Induction. False-Belief Task. PredictionsReferences Related Background Ã¢â¬Å"Theory of mindÃ¢â¬ (ToM) is the ability to reason other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, intentions and desires (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). Over the last two decades, there has been considerable developmental research into ToM using the Ã¢â¬Å"false-belief taskÃ¢â¬ (e.g. Baron-Cohen et al., 1985, Wellman et al., 2001). The majority of research has established that ToM is present in young children and develops in a predictable sequence through childhood (Wellman Liu, 2004). For example, by three years of age, children can understand that two individuals can hold different beliefs (Wimmer Perner, 1983) and by age four, can understand that people can have Ã¢â¬Å"false-beliefsÃ¢â¬ contrary to reality (Wellman Liu, 2004). Recent research has even demonstrated that adults have difficulties with false-belief tasks (Birch Bloom, 2007). However, a recent paper by Converse et al (2008) examined the role of incidental mood on ToM. Grounded in the view that ToM requires effortful and deliberative processing (Kahneman, 2003), researchers found that when distinguishing between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own and otherÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, participants were facilitated by sad moods compared to happy moods. This is because happiness is associated with heuristic processing whilst sadness is associated with systematic and deliberative processing (Converse et al., 2008). In their study, adult participants underwent a musical mood induction procedure (MMIP) and were randomly allocated to two conditions (Ã¢â¬Å"happyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sadÃ¢â¬ ). Those in the former condition were asked to listen to a song from a pre-selected list of happy songs whilst participants in the latter condition were required to listen to a sad song. Following the mood induction, participants completed a false-belief task in which they read one of two versions of a sc enario and estimate a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Whilst the character has the same knowledge in both versions, participants received different information. Researchers then measured low ToM use by observing whether participants had an increased reliance on their own private knowledge. The study is an important contribution to the current body of knowledge on ToM as the findings suggest that a) mood states do have important consequences for mental-state inferences and b) variability in ToM studies may be explained by mood. However, despite these contributions, the study solely focused on a sample of adults and failed to explore how mood affects ToM use in children. This is an important oversight given that the majority of developments in ToM have been based on studies with children, therefore, suggesting significant implications for research if mood is found to significantly impact childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ToM judgments. Moreover, given childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s increased susceptibility to mood induction (De Haan Gunnar, 2009), mood may have even more potent effects on ToM in children. This current study will therefore examine the role of mood in affecting ToM use in children for the first time. It will attempt to bolster previous findings that mood does influence ToM and clarify the role of mood in influencing deliberative processing in ToM. In so doing, the study will replicate the original procedure, but with modifications to the mood induction and the false-belief task. In fact, a clear strength of this study is that the false-belief task was originally devised to be used with children and not adults (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985), making the task particularly suitable for use with children. In addition, previous research has supported the fact that mood induction procedures can effectively impact childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s positive and negative emotions (Brenner, 2000). Proposed Research There are modifications made to the experimental procedure. As mood induction requires participants to follow explicit instructions, changes to the MMIP will be implemented according to the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s sample of pre-school children. For example, although researchers (e.g. Dalla Bella et al., 2001) have found that most 5 year olds can distinguish positive and negative valence in music, a MMIP may not be sufficient for invoking moods in children. Children will therefore undergo an additional mood induction. Moreover, in the original study, adult participants completed a pre- and post- induction self-report (Positive-and-Negative Affect Schedule; Watson Clark, 1994) to serve as a manipulation check. However, as a self-report is difficult to implement with young children, an alternative manipulation check is needed. There are also important ethical considerations associated with a MMIP in children. The experimenter will need to ensure that mood induction does not cause long-term effe cts, but is also not too short-lived to observe its effects. Method Participants 100 children aged 4-6 years old will be recruited from local schools through flyers and e-mail bulletins. Procedure. On the day of testing, each child will be guided to an individual room. To provide a replication of the Converse et al (2008) study, a 2 X 2 between-subjects experimental design will include a mood induction and false-belief task. Researchers will randomly allocate children to 2 conditions: Ã¢â¬Å"happyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sadÃ¢â¬ and undergo the mood induction. Both groups then complete the same false-belief task. The entire procedure takes a total of 40 minutes. Mood Induction. The mood induction scenario for each condition will make amendments to the MMIP in the Converse et al (2008) study. Each child will first be shown a sheet of paper with a series of Ã¢â¬Å"smiley facesÃ¢â¬ ranging from very sad to very happy, and asked to point to the image that best describes how they feel. This is the baseline affect manipulation check. Children will then be instructed to listen to a song played via speakers. Children in the happy condition will listen to two songs from the original list of songs in the Converse et al (2008) study and children in the sad condition will listen to two sad songs. In both conditions, children will be explicitly told Ã¢â¬Å"Now, I am going to play aÃ Ã¢â¬Å"happyÃ¢â¬ / Ã¢â¬Å"sadÃ¢â¬ song so please listen carefully to the songÃ¢â¬ . Children will then be presented with a model figure on a sheet of paper and asked to draw a replica of the figure on a plain sheet of A4 paper. In the happy condition, children will be presented with a smiling figure and in the sad condition, children will be asked to copy a sad figure. Following this, children will be presented with the sheet of faces and asked to point to the face which describes how they feel to provide a post-task rating of affect. A second manipulation check will be the size of their drawing as research has suggested that drawing size is associated with a childÃ¢â¬â¢s affect. Larger drawings indicative of positive affect and smaller drawings are indicative of negative affect (Forrest Thomas, 1991). False-Belief Task. The false-belief task is the classic Ã¢â¬Å"Sally-Anne taskÃ¢â¬ (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). Each child is seated at a table with two dolls. The experimenter tells the child that the dolls are named Anne and Sally and checks that the child has understood these names. Each doll is placed in front of a basket and square box. The experimenter then enacts a scene in which a marble is hidden in SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s basket to Ã¢â¬ËhideÃ¢â¬â¢ the marble with Anne looking on. Sally then Ã¢â¬Å"leaves the roomÃ¢â¬ and the marble is then re-hidden in the box. Sally returns and the experimenter prompts the child with three questions: Ã¢â¬ËWhere will Sally look for her marble?Ã¢â¬â¢ (Ã¢â¬Å"belief questionÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬ËWhere is the marble really?Ã¢â¬â¢ (Ã¢â¬Å"reality questionÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬ËWhere was the marble in the beginning?Ã¢â¬â¢ (Ã¢â¬Å"memory questionÃ¢â¬ ) Predictions There are a number of predictions for the current study. Firstly, it is expected that the findings of the original study will be replicated in the sample of pre-school children. That is, I expect that after controlling for age effects, children in the sad condition will score higher on the belief, reality and memory questions in the Sally-Anne task. This will be due to a greater deliberative processing associated with a sad mood. These findings will provide support for the idea that ToM requires deliberative processing and such processing is associated with sad moods rather than happy moods. Second, I expect that there will be a number of age differences in performance on the Sally-Anne task. I expect that younger children, due to their increased susceptibility to mood induction, will have a greatly diminished ToM on the Sally-Anne task due to the more pronounced impact of mood on their deliberative processing. However, it must be noted that it is possible that the results of the current study will not replicate the original study. This may be due to a number of factors. Firstly, it is possible that the mood induction procedures are not powerful enough to invoke happy and sad moods for children or they produce effects that are too short term to observe any effects in the false belief task. Second, it may be that the deliberative processing associated with sad moods and the heuristic processing associated with happy moods is not developed sufficiently in pre-school children, and is only salient in adulthood. If this is the case, this provides impetus for future research focused on testing the influence of mood on ToM in older children and adolescents. References Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëtheory of mindÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢? Cognition, 21, 37Ã¢â¬â46. Birch, S. A. J., Bloom, P. (2007). The curse of knowledge in reasoning about false beliefs. Psychological Science, 18(5), 382Ã¢â¬â386. Brenner, E. (2000). Mood induction in children: Methodological implications. Review of General Psychology, 4, 264-283. Converse, B. A., Shuhong, L., Boaz, K., Epley, N. (2008). In the Mood To Get Over Yourself: Mood Affects Theory-of-Mind Use. Emotion, 8(5), 725-630. Dalla Bella, S., Peretz, I., Rousseau, L., Gosselin, N. (2001). A developmental study of the affective value of tempo and mode in music. Cognition, 80, B1-B10. de Haan, M., Gunnar, M.R. (2009). Handbook of Developmental Social Neuroscience. The Guilford Press. Forrest, M. Thomas, G.V. (1991). An exploratory study of drawings by bereaved children, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 373-374. Kahneman, D. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist, 58, 697Ã¢â¬â720. Watson, D., Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-Expanded Form. Iowa City: University of Iowa. Wimmer, H.; Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young childrens understanding of deception. CognitionÃ 13(1), 103Ã¢â¬â128. Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655Ã¢â¬â684. Wellman, H. M., Liu, D. (2004). Scaling of Theory-Of-Mind Tasks. Child Development, 75(2), 523-541.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Figurative Language versus Literal Language - Essay Example Below are some of the most commonly used figurative expressions: Idioms, analogy, metaphor, simile, clichÃ ©, amphiboly, flame word, hyperbole, euphemism, and colloquialism. All are figurative expressions that may cause confusion and even misunderstanding to the ones that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t familiar with them. An idiom is a group of words or phrase that means something else differently from what it says literally. Idioms can actually be considered oral literature. They are passed down from generation to generation as part of culture. Example is Ã¢â¬Å"kick the bucketÃ¢â¬ , as in Mr. Jones kicked the bucket just yesterday! It would be senseless if a man just kicked a bucket. But kicking the bucket, idiomatically, means to die. It should be avoided in formal correspondences to avoid misunderstanding as idioms are generally geographic in nature. Analogy is another figurative expression that can be confusing. Analogy can be confusing if you do not know the references that the speaker uses in a sentence, especially if the speaker uses pop culture references (I will be a Marshall to your Lily. Ã¢â¬â in reference to the couple in the TV show How I Met Your Mother). But generally, it is quite useful in simplifying complicated ideas. For example, The CPU of the computer is like the brain; it is the commanding center. For students learning computer, it would be easy to remember: CPU = brain, but the elements used in idioms should be universally known to prevent misunderstandings. A metaphor, on the other hand, is similar to analogy but it does not compare two things directly. In a metaphor, the comparison is asserted to an otherwise unrelated object although one can argue that a metaphor is a type of analogy. A famous metaphor by Shakespeare goes: All the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s a stage, and all the men and women merely players; they have their exits and their entrances, from As You Like